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Social Security Rights in Turkey in the Process of Membership to European Union

15.02.2021

1. Ankara Agreement: Basic Foundations of Social Security

Ankara Agreement, signed on 12 September 1963 and came into effect on 1 December 1964, constitutes the beginning of a process which provides for some significant rights in the field of social security between Turkey and the European Union. The following provisions of Ankara Agreement are the basis for social security rights and accepted as a ground for the right to move freely for Turkish citizens. These are,

  • Article 9: The Contracting Parties recognize that within the scope of this Agreement and without prejudice to any special provisions which may be laid down pursuant to Article 8, any discrimination on grounds of nationality shall be prohibited in accordance with the principle laid down in Article 7 of the Treaty establishing the Community.
  • Article 12: The Contracting Parties agree to be guided by Articles 48, 49 and 50 the Treaty establishing the Community for the purpose of progressively securing freedom of movement for workers between them.
  • Article 13: The Contracting Parties agree to be guided by Articles 52 to 56 and Article 58 of the Treaty establishing the Community for the purpose of abolishing restrictions on freedom of establishment between them.

The mentioned articles of the Treaty establishing the Community, which are referred to in these articles, include provisions on right to move freely and equality of treatment. Ankara Agreement, which stipulates a three-term’s period for the realization of right to move freely, establishes the conditions, procedures, sequence and duration of the mentioned Transition Period in the Additional Protocol. In this Protocol, the principles of social security are specified in the Articles 36-41. Article 36 includes the regulations regarding the realization of workers’ right to move freely gradually within the specified period. Article 37 refers to the issue of not making any discrimination in terms of working conditions and salary of the Turkish workers employed in the Community. Other articles in the agreement are as follows:

  • Article 38: While freedom of movement for workers between Member States of the Community and Turkey is being brought about by progressive stages, the Council of Association may review all questions arising in connection with the geographical and occupational mobility of workers of Turkish nationality, in particular the extension of work and residence permits, in order to facilitate the employment of those workers in each Member State. To that end, the Council of Association may make recommendations to Member States.
  • Article 39: Before the end of the first year after the entry into force of this Protocol the Council of Association shall adopt social security measures for workers of Turkish nationality moving within the Community and for their families residing in the Community.
  • These provisions must enable workers of Turkish nationality, in accordance with arrangements to be laid down, to aggregate periods of insurance or employment completed in individual Member States in respect of old-age pensions, death benefits and invalidity pensions, and also as regards the provision of health services for workers and their families residing in the Community. These measures shall create no obligation on Member States to take into account periods completed in Turkey.The abovementioned measures must ensure that family allowances are paid if a worker’s family resides in the Community.
  • Article 41: The Contracting Parties shall refrain from introducing between themselves any new restrictions on the freedom of establishment and the freedom to provide services.

The above specified articles generally constitute the basis for the opened cases in Court of Justice of the European Communities by Turkish citizens. Apart from this in the Article 6 of the Ankara Agreement it is stated that “To ensure the implementation and the progressive development of the Association, the Contracting Parties shall meet in a Council of Association which shall act within the powers conferred upon it by this Agreement.” By way of this provision, the judgement calls regarding social security reached during the meetings of the mentioned Council of Association are taken as grounds to the applications made to international authorities, especially to CJEC, for protection of the rights of Turkish citizens.
2. Decision No. 3/80 of the Council of Association and Social Security
In its relations to EU, Turkey has a privileged position with respect to other countries. This privilege stems from Ankara Agreement and the Additional Protocol and Association Council Decisions (ACD) signed within the framework of this agreement.
In Ankara Agreement discrimination has been prohibited with the provision of the Article 9 “The Contracting Parties recognize that within the scope of this Agreement and without prejudice to any special provisions which may be laid down pursuant to Article 8, any discrimination on grounds of nationality shall be prohibited in accordance with the principle laid down in Article 7 of the Treaty establishing the Community.” This principle should be viewed together with the Articles 12 and 14 of the same agreement. Likewise, Article 12 provides for being guided by the Treaty establishing the Community for the purpose of progressively securing freedom of movement for workers and Article 14 provides for the necessity of making required attempts to abolish restrictions on the freedom of providing service. It is specified in Article 41 of the Additional Protocol that the Contracting Parties shall refrain from introducing between themselves any new restrictions on the freedom of establishment and the freedom to provide services.
In light of these general provisions, the main part that should be analysed is ACD numbered 3/80 and dated 19 September 1980 regarding the social security regimes applied by EU member states to the Turkish workers and their family members.
In the second article of the ACD no 3/80 the personal scope is specified as follows:

  • to workers who are or have been subject to the legislation of one more Member States and who are Turkish nationals,
  • to the members of the families of these workers, resident in the territory of one of the Member States,
  • to the survivors of these workers.

However there are some problems regarding the direct applicability of this ACD No. 3/80. Because in the cases concluded by CJEC, there is a decision in the direction of unenforceability of some provisions because of the fact that there is not an implementing regulation of the said Decision.
Besides, for “directly applicable provisions” there is no need for an implementing regulation and the mentioned provisions can be applied directly. The directly applicable provisions of ACD No. 3/80 are mostly related to the way of making decisions on the issues within their areas of jurisdiction of their states in EU. ACD No. 3/80, which is based on Ankara Agreement and Article 39 of the Additional Protocol, shall not be applied directly within the legislation of the community. Because according to the community legislation the applicability of such decisions related to all member states, depends on the implementing regulation which will be issued by unanimous vote of the European Council after obtaining information from European Commission. Although European Commission presented its opinion on the respective ACD and submitted its proposed regulation to the Council, this regulation has not been approved by the Council yet.


Source: Social Security Institution (SGK)
Legal Notice: The information in this article is intended for information purposes only. It is not intended for professional information purposes specific to a person or an institution. Every institution has different requirements because of its own circumstances even though they bear a resemblance to each other. Consequently, it is your interest to consult on an expert before taking a decision based on information stated in this article and putting into practice. Neither Karen Audit nor related person or institutions are not responsible for any damages or losses that might occur in consequence of the use of the information in this article by private or formal, real or legal person and institutions.


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In the last quarter of 2020 FDI inflows into Turkey reached USD 3 billion

15.02.2021

FDI Inflows Into Turkey Surge in Q4 2020

​​As a sign of the continuing investor appetite in Turkey and the quick recovery in the wake of the pandemic, FDI inflows into Turkey totaled USD 7.7 billion in 2020, when the global appetite for FDI throughout the world shrank at a considerable amount stemming from the negative effects of the novel coronavirus. With this figure, total FDI inflows into Turkey in the 2003-2020 period reached USD 225 billion.
In the last quarter of 2020, FDI inflows into Turkey reached USD 3 billion, reaching a share of 40 percent in total FDI amount in the entire year. Turkey recorded an FDI inflow of USD 1.3 billion in December 2020, a considerable 31 percent increase when compared to the same month of the previous year.
With this performance, Turkey once again proved resilient against crisis and shocks while demonstrating that it is a safe haven with robust economic fundamentals.
Diversified FDI Sources
Turkey also diversified its FDI sources in 2020. While the traditional FDI investments continue to originate from European countries, which have a 53.8 percent share in total, Turkey is now seeing higher FDI inflows from USA, the Middle East and Asian countries having respective shares of 14.1 percent, 7.1 percent and 6.5 percent in total FDI in 2020. On a country basis, Italy, USA, the Netherlands, the UK and Luxembourg accounted for the top five FDI sources of Turkey in 2020.
Increasing Share in Global FDI
Turkey’s share in global FDI inflows reached 0.9 percent in 2020 up from 0.6 percent in the previous year, according to the data of United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD). UNCTAD also unveiled that global FDI inflows throughout the world receded by 42 percent in 2020.

Source: Republic of Turkey Investment Office
Legal Notice: The information in this article is intended for information purposes only. It is not intended for professional information purposes specific to a person or an institution. Every institution has different requirements because of its own circumstances even though they bear a resemblance to each other. Consequently, it is your interest to consult on an expert before taking a decision based on information stated in this article and putting into practice. Neither Karen Audit nor related person or institutions are not responsible for any damages or losses that might occur in consequence of the use of the information in this article by private or formal, real or legal person and institutions.


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House sales in Turkey decreased by 37.9% in January 2021 compared to the same month of the previous year

15.02.2021

House Sales Statistics, January 2021


Source: TurkStat
Legal Notice: The information in this article is intended for information purposes only. It is not intended for professional information purposes specific to a person or an institution. Every institution has different requirements because of its own circumstances even though they bear a resemblance to each other. Consequently, it is your interest to consult on an expert before taking a decision based on information stated in this article and putting into practice. Neither Karen Audit nor related person or institutions are not responsible for any damages or losses that might occur in consequence of the use of the information in this article by private or formal, real or legal person and institutions.


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Producer Price Index of Agricultural Products in Turkey increased by 21.26% annually and 3.03% monthly

15.02.2021

Producer Price Index of Agricultural Products, January 2021


Source: TurkStat
Legal Notice: The information in this article is intended for information purposes only. It is not intended for professional information purposes specific to a person or an institution. Every institution has different requirements because of its own circumstances even though they bear a resemblance to each other. Consequently, it is your interest to consult on an expert before taking a decision based on information stated in this article and putting into practice. Neither Karen Audit nor related person or institutions are not responsible for any damages or losses that might occur in consequence of the use of the information in this article by private or formal, real or legal person and institutions.


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Who can receive healthcare services abroad according to the social security agreements?

08.02.2021

Foreign Healthcare Transactions

23 of all the social security agreements signed by our country are still in force and the agreements with following countries include healthcare insurance: Germany, Netherlands, Belgium, Austria, France, TRNC-Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus, Macedonia, Azerbaijan, Romania, Czech Republic, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Albania, Luxemburg and Croatia.

However, the provisions on healthcare insurance in the agreements signed between Azerbaijan and Albania cannot be implemented due to the reasons stemming from their legislations.

Which persons can receive healthcare services abroad according to the social security agreements?

Unless otherwise provided in the agreement on social security, the following persons have the right to receive healthcare benefits on behalf of our Institution;

  1. Insured persons (banks, insurance and reassurance companies, chambers of commerce, chambers of industry, stock markets and the workers employed in the unions constituted by them) under the scope of letter (a) of the first paragraph of Article 4 of the Law No. 5510 and of transitional Article 20 of the Law No. 506 and their dependent family members. Of the persons specified in this scope, the following can receive healthcare benefits while staying or residing in a foreign country:
    • Insured persons temporarily posted to a foreign country,
    • Persons who are permanently posted to a foreign country and their dependent family members,,
    • Dependent family members of the insured and retired persons staying abroad for educational reasons,,
    • Insured and retired persons staying abroad for touristic purposes and their dependent family members,,
    • Dependent family members of the insured persons who are permanently residing abroad and retired persons and their dependent family members,,
    • Members of universal health insurance who are sent to another country for treatment and their dependent family members.,
  2. Apart from this; according to the legislation of our Institution, the following persons can avail themselves from the right to receive healthcare benefits provided by our Institution under the scope of universal health insurance on behalf of the contracted countries;
    • For temporary stay; all the persons registered on the document (formulary) of right to healthcare benefits, only in cases of emergency,
    • For permanent residence; persons specified in the social security agreements.

In this context, in order to receive healthcare benefits in our country, respective persons are required to be an insured member of universal health insurance or dependent of the insured in question.

Conditions for Receiving Healthcare Benefits for the Persons Having Foreign Insurance

Persons having foreign insurance, who either temporarily stay or permanently reside in our country, are required to get a formulary from the institution to which they are registered and submit it to the Departments of Foreign Services operating within the scope of Social Security Provincial Directorates/Social Security Centers in their place of stay or residence; or to the Social Security Centers designated by Social Security Provincial Directorates.

Through the Document of Healthcare Benefits under Social Security Agreement, they can avail themselves from right to healthcare benefits in contracted health facilities, like other insured members of universal health insurance, free of charge excluding the rates of contribution and share which have to be paid legally by the insured himself/herself.

In cases of emergency, the insured persons, coming from countries with whom a social security agreement including healthcare insurance applications has been concluded and who are temporarily staying in our country, can receive the formulary for the right to healthcare services from the “Department of Foreign Services” in their place of stay in Turkey by submitting the document issued by the social security institution in their country. Besides, these documents can be confirmed through Social Security Centers designated by Social Security Provincial Directorates.

Benefiting from Emergency Healthcare Services for the People Having Foreign Insurance

In order to receive healthcare services, foreign insured people are required to make an application to the contracted health facilities of the Ministry of Health or to the private or training health facilities with the “Document of Healthcare Benefits under Social Security Agreement.”
Only through the referral of our contracted units, services can be provided from the non-contracted health facilities. When a person applies directly to a non-contracted health facility, regardless of this regulation, his/her expenses of treatment can be covered by the Institution on condition that it is an emergency situation.

Whether the treatment is an emergency or not is determined through the inspection of the relevant submitted medical documents by the contracted health facilities.

In such a case, the insured person shall apply to the Social Security Provincial Directorate/Social Security Center together with the reports regarding his/her treatment and invoices if he/she has made the payment. If the treatment is accepted as an emergency, a reimbursement shall be made to the insured in accordance with the provisions set forth in Medical Enforcement Declaration (SUT).

Duration of Benefiting from Healthcare Services for Foreign Insured People who are Temporarily Staying in our Country and Determination of the Family Members to Receive Healthcare Benefits

People, who are temporarily staying in our country, have the right to healthcare benefits for the period specified in the documents that they brought with them. For temporary stay, people to receive healthcare benefits are determined according to the legislation of the country issuing the document.

In case healthcare benefit is needed after the expiration of the document;

  • A new document for treatment period shall be requested from the contracted country by applying to the relevant unit of the Institution.
  • Insured person shall directly contact with the insurance institution of the country to which he/she is subject and request a new document for treatment period. The healthcare services provided meanwhile have to be paid for.
  • After the document for the extension of the period is received from the contracted country, a “Document of Healthcare Benefits under Social Security Agreement” shall be issued retrospectively and the expenses shall be reimbursed to the respective people pursuant to the provisions of Medical Enforcement Declaration (SUT).

Duration of Benefiting from Healthcare Services for Foreign Retired People who are Permanently Residing in our Country and Determination of the Family Members to Receive Healthcare Benefits

People, who are permanently residing in our country, have the right to receive healthcare benefits for the period specified in the documents issued by the institutions of the contracted countries until a notification regarding the termination of the right to healthcare benefits is received.

For the permanent residences, the people to receive healthcare benefits subject to the agreement.

In our agreements with Germany, Netherlands, Belgium, France, Czech Republic, T.R.N.C., Luxemburg and Croatia, family members are determined pursuant to the legislation of our Institution; while in our agreements with Macedonia, Romania, Azerbaijan, Bosnia-Herzegovina and Albania they are determined according to the legislation of the relevant country.

Documents of right to healthcare benefits in cases of permanent residence are sent to our Institution by the insurance institutions of contracted countries either for a long time or without specifying the date of termination of the right.

However, the rights of foreign insured people in order to receive healthcare benefits are sometimes terminated by the relevant sickness funds for various reasons.

For the purpose of checking whether foreign insured people’s rights to healthcare benefits are continuing or not, the mentioned documents are issued in every six months’ period and given to the relevant persons.

Where the Costs of Treatment can be reimbursed by Foreign Insured Persons who pay for Their Treatment without a Document of Right to Healthcare Benefits?

Foreign insured persons who pay for their treatment in our country without obtaining the document (formulary) for receiving healthcare benefits from the insurance institution to which he/she is registered shall keep their reports and invoices regarding the treatment. After returning to his/her country to which he/she is registered, he/she shall request a reimbursement by submitting the relevant reports and invoices indicating the healthcare expenses to the institution to which he/she is affiliated. In this case, if it is set forth in the agreement, the insurance institution receiving the application shall request information from our Institution on the specified cost of the treatment provided in our country by sending the relevant reports and invoices. Following the receipt of the notification on the specified cost of that treatment, institution shall reimburse the notified amount to relevant person.

Who can Receive Healthcare Benefits in Germany in Accordance with the Social Security Agreement between Germany and our Country?

Only our workers and retired workers were to avail themselves of the healthcare provisions of the Social Security Agreement signed with Germany.

By way of reaching a consensus with German liaison body, craftsmen and civil servants and people who are retired in this context and also their dependants are covered by the healthcare provisions of the Social Security Agreement between Turkey and Germany.

As a result of this regulation, all the insured and retired persons and their dependants going to Germany, have the opportunity to avail themselves of healthcare benefits.


Source: Social Security Istitution (SGK)
Legal Notice: The information in this article is intended for information purposes only. It is not intended for professional information purposes specific to a person or an institution. Every institution has different requirements because of its own circumstances even though they bear a resemblance to each other. Consequently, it is your interest to consult on an expert before taking a decision based on information stated in this article and putting into practice. Neither Karen Audit nor related person or institutions are not responsible for any damages or losses that might occur in consequence of the use of the information in this article by private or formal, real or legal person and institutions.


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Turkish Startups Break Fundraising Record in 2020

08.02.2021

Startups Watch, a Turkey-based platform offering analytics of Turkey’s startup ecosystem, unveiled its “Turkish Startup Ecosystem 2020 Year in Review” report on January 29.
The report revealed that 165 Turkey-based startups received USD 139 million from angel investors and venture capitals (VC) in total in 2020 – a new record for the country’s ecosystem. Among all European countries, Turkey ranked 3rd with total angel and VC funding, preserving its place in the 1st League​. Turkish startups Insider, Meditopia and Getir were the country’s largest fundraisers of 2020.
The report noted that 2019 and 2020 staged striking exits of Turkish gaming startups, with Turkey’s gaming industry clinching the top spot on the list of the most popular category of startups.
Foremost among these was Turkey-based gaming startup Peak Games, which made Europe’s biggest VC-backed exit in 2020 and became the country’s first unicorn.
On a side note, the report shed light on Turkey’s Regional Development Fund – a TRY 250 million-fund set up in 2020 to shore up the country’s startups.

Source: Republic of Turkey Investment Office
Legal Notice: The information in this article is intended for information purposes only. It is not intended for professional information purposes specific to a person or an institution. Every institution has different requirements because of its own circumstances even though they bear a resemblance to each other. Consequently, it is your interest to consult on an expert before taking a decision based on information stated in this article and putting into practice. Neither Karen Audit nor related person or institutions are not responsible for any damages or losses that might occur in consequence of the use of the information in this article by private or formal, real or legal person and institutions.


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Turkey Moves Ahead of Curve with Positive Growth in 2020

08.02.2021

​​Turkey is among the few countries estimated to have posted positive overall growth in 2020, and is expected to record a GDP growth in the region of 6 percent in 2021, according to the International Monetary Fund (IMF) Staff Concluding Statement of the 2021 Article IV Mission.
The statement put forward that Turkey’s initial policies and following actions – direct fiscal measures, governmental support to sustain employment, policy rate cuts, credit supports – paved the way for the country’s GDP to rally, especially in the 3rd quarter of the last year.
Formerly, in its ‘World Economic Outlook’ forecast, IMF projected Turkish economy to grow by 5 percent in 2021. This estimation was revised up though to circa 6 percent thanks to the rollout of COVID-19 vaccinations and improving trading activities with partners as well as effective monetary policies.

Source: Republic of Turkey Investment Office
Legal Notice: The information in this article is intended for information purposes only. It is not intended for professional information purposes specific to a person or an institution. Every institution has different requirements because of its own circumstances even though they bear a resemblance to each other. Consequently, it is your interest to consult on an expert before taking a decision based on information stated in this article and putting into practice. Neither Karen Audit nor related person or institutions are not responsible for any damages or losses that might occur in consequence of the use of the information in this article by private or formal, real or legal person and institutions.


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Foreign Pension Transactions in Turkey

05.02.2021

What are the conditions for being entitled to invalidity, old age and survivor’s pensions based on the credited periods completed abroad?
Conditions for being entitled to invalidity, old age and survivor’s pensions based on the credited periods are as follows:

  • Being a returnee, (the statement of returnee represents the termination of employment abroad of the claimant and not receiving any social insurance or social benefit based on residence. The statement of absolute is not used in cases of entering into country and not going abroad any more.)
  • Paying the amount equal to the corresponding minimum period/day enough for being entitled to pension over the realized debt,
  • Being entitled to pension under the applicable provisions of abrogated social security law/laws or the provisions of the Law No. 5510,
  • Making a written application to the Institution.

What am I required to do first in order to be entitled to invalidity, old age and survivor’s pensions based on the credited periods completed abroad?
After completion of the process of foreign service crediting these forms should be completed: Claim for Allocation and Document of Representations Warranties (link) and Document of Representation Warranties for Claimants under Law No. 3201. (link)
Claim for Allocation and Document of Representations Warranties shall be obtained from Social Security Provincial Directorates/Social Security Centres and also from the web page of Social Security Institution:
(http://www.sgk.gov.tr/wps/portal/tr/sigortalılık/form_ve_dilekceler/formlar).
I have completed the Claim for Allocation and Document of Representations Warranties and Document of Representation Warranties for Claimants under Law No. 3201. What am I supposed to do now?
The condition of making the pension applications in person has been cancelled. The necessary documents can either be submitted directly to the relevant Social Security Provincial Directorate/Social Security Centre or can be mailed from either upcountry or abroad, after being duly completed and signed.
Submission of an updated service document is required only for those who apply from abroad.
Service documents issued within one month before the date of application are accepted as up to date.
For the returnees, it is not compulsory for the service document to be up to date.
Is it compulsory to be a Turkish citizen on the date of application or receiving of the pension?
It is not compulsory to be a Turkish citizen on the date of application or receiving of the pension according to the Law No. 3201 after 08/05/2008.
I have been entitled to a pension based on the crediting of the periods completed abroad. Am I obliged to make any notification before going abroad?
People, who are entitled to invalidity, old age and survivor’s pension based on the crediting of the periods completed abroad and stayed abroad for more than six months, have to submit to the Institution the Survey Document for Pensioners under the Law No. 3201 together with the other documents indicating whether the person is employed abroad and is receiving a social insurance or social benefit based on residence, within three months from the completion of the mentioned six month’s period.
Suspension of the Pension and Succeeding Transactions
If the person fails to submit the Survey Document for Pensioners under the Law No. 3201 within the specified period, his/her pension shall be suspended without any notification until the submission of the said document.
Pensions of those who are entitled to a pension under the Law No. 3201 based on crediting of the periods completed abroad shall be terminated as from the commencement date, in case it is determined that their employment abroad has not ended as of the commencement date of the pension, because of violating the condition of leaving the job abroad for being entitled to a pension.


Source: Social Security Institution (SGK)
Legal Notice: The information in this article is intended for information purposes only. It is not intended for professional information purposes specific to a person or an institution. Every institution has different requirements because of its own circumstances even though they bear a resemblance to each other. Consequently, it is your interest to consult on an expert before taking a decision based on information stated in this article and putting into practice. Neither Karen Audit nor related person or institutions are not responsible for any damages or losses that might occur in consequence of the use of the information in this article by private or formal, real or legal person and institutions.


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The upper transaction limit of the FAST System in Turkey is raised to TRY 1,000

05.02.2021

Press Release on Upper Transaction Limit of FAST System

The number of users registered in the Easy Addressing System, which allows initiation of payments easily and rapidly using Turkish ID numbers, phone numbers or email addresses, has reached 5.3 million.Developed and operated by the Central Bank of the Republic of Turkey, the new generation instant payment system available 24/7, the Instant and Continuous Transfer of Funds (FAST) System, has attracted major interest, processing 9 million instant payments since its launch on 8 January 2021.

The upper limit for transactions at the FAST system has been raised to TRY 1,000 as of today. Interoperability of the FAST system with higher limits and new value-added services that will enhance user experience, such as QR code payments, will be possible in the future.

These developments, which will strengthen the basic infrastructure in the field of payments, will make innovative financial technologies an indispensable part of daily life and provide major contributions to the target of full-fledged digitalisation of the economy.


Source: Central Bank of the Republic of Turkey
Legal Notice: The information in this article is intended for information purposes only. It is not intended for professional information purposes specific to a person or an institution. Every institution has different requirements because of its own circumstances even though they bear a resemblance to each other. Consequently, it is your interest to consult on an expert before taking a decision based on information stated in this article and putting into practice. Neither Karen Audit nor related person or institutions are not responsible for any damages or losses that might occur in consequence of the use of the information in this article by private or formal, real or legal person and institutions.


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The Central Bank of Turkey expects inflation to be 9.46 at the end of 2021, 78b at the end of 2022 and 596 at the end of 2023

05.02.2021


Source: The Central Bank of Republic of Turkey / Inflation Report
Legal Notice: The information in this article is intended for information purposes only. It is not intended for professional information purposes specific to a person or an institution. Every institution has different requirements because of its own circumstances even though they bear a resemblance to each other. Consequently, it is your interest to consult on an expert before taking a decision based on information stated in this article and putting into practice. Neither Karen Audit nor related person or institutions are not responsible for any damages or losses that might occur in consequence of the use of the information in this article by private or formal, real or legal person and institutions.


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