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Company Establishment

COMPANY TYPES IN TURKEY

Limited liability company and joint stock company are the most preferred among the five different types of companies in the Turkish Commercial Code.

Joint stock companies and limited liability companies constitute approximately 95% of all companies in Turkey.

82% of these are limited liability companies and

13% are joint stock companies.

ABOUT THE JOINT STOCK COMPANY

It is established with at least one shareholder,

The shareholder or all of the owners can be foreign persons,

Minimum Capital must be 50 Thousand Turkish Lira,

There is no upper limit on capital.

There must be at least one member of the board of directors,

The member or members of the board of directors can be foreign persons,

Professional general manager can be appointed,

Stock can be printed,

Sales gains after holding the shares for two years are not taxable.

All company establishment processes take approximately 7 business days to complete.

After the establishment of the company, the process of opening an account in the bank is started.

You can contact us for other questions regarding the joint stock company to be established in Turkey.

Frequently Asked Questions About Joint Stock Company in Türkiye

One shareholder is sufficient for the establishment of a joint stock company in Türkiye.
There is no upper limit on the number of shareholders of a joint stock company to be established in Türkiye.
No. The shareholder or shareholders do not have to be Turkish citizens. All shareholders can be foreign persons.
Yes. Shareholder(s) can be foreign persons. For example, a limited liability company or joint stock company abroad can be a legal person shareholder of a limited or joint stock company to be established in Türkiye.
There is no obligation to have a Turkish citizen shareholder in a company to be established in Türkiye.
Yes. Joint stock company’s authorized signatory (member of the Board of Directors) can be a real or legal person established in Türkiye or a foreign person.
In case the legal person is elected to the board of directors of the company in Türkiye, he/she must choose a real person who will sign on behalf of the foreign legal person. This real person can also be a Turkish citizen or a foreign person.
Yes, any title can be used. At least one industry name must be included in the title.
Before the establishment, it is inquired whether there is a similar title or not.
In the title, “Turkish, Türkiye, Republic, National” statements are not used in order that they depends on the approval of the Council of Ministers.
Yes. Logo and trademark registration can be made after the establishment of the company.
Yes, it is possible. Provided that it is stated in the Articles of Association of the company, it is possible to operate in more than one sector.
The minimum capital required for an JSC to be established in Türkiye is 50 Thousand TL. 25% of this amount should be blocked to the bank at the time of establishment. After the establishment approval, the bank blockage will be released, and the money can be used. The remaining 3/4 of capital commitment is deposited into the company’s bank account by the shareholders within 2 years following the establishment and can be freely used for company activities.
The governing body of joint stock companies in Türkiye is the Board of Directors. The term of office of the Board of Directors can be determined as 3 years at the most. At the end of 3 years, the same people can be re-elected for 3 years.
Yes. The company must have a legal postal address. Addressing, answering coming calls and mail/cargo delivery and forwarding can be purchased as services from virtual office companies.
After obtaining the documents required for the establishment, the establishment of a company with foreign capital is completed within approximately 5 to 7 working days.
In Türkiye, companies register with the chamber of commerce, trade registry directorate, tax office and social security institution in the city to which their address is affiliated.
After the establishment of the company, the establishment documents are given to the bank and the bank account opening processes begin. A bank account can be opened within 1 to 5 business days. Banks can request additional information about foreign company shareholders during account opening.
Invoices are created electronically through the software of integrator software companies authorized by the Turkish Revenue Administration and sent to customers electronically.
E-Invoices of customers located abroad are sent via e-mail.
-VAT declaration: Monthly
– Withholding declaration: Monthly
-Corporations Provisional Tax Return: 3 Months
-Corporate Tax Declaration: Annually
-Stamp Duty declaration: As the contract is
-Social Security Notice: Monthly
Responsibility for public debts in joint stock companies is on the board of directors.
Shareholders who are not from the board of directors are not liable for public debts.
Liability for commercial debts is as much as the company’s assets. As long as there are no misleading and fraudulent transactions, individuals and institutions with whom commercial relations are made can only go to the assets of the company for their receivables. They cannot go to the Board of Directors or company shareholders.
Joint Stock Companies in Türkiye are not obliged to issue share certificate. However, optionally, the share certificate can be printed. Share certificate can be printed by name or bearer.
In order for the share certificate to be issued, the subscribed capital must be fully paid.
The profit to be obtained from the sale of shares after 2 years have passed from the issuance of the shares is exempt from income tax for the shareholder selling the share.
Earnings from sales made within 2 years are subject to tax.
Share sales are made through a share transfer agreement to be drawn up between the shareholders. The sales transaction is reported to the board of directors of the joint stock company, and then the shareholders are recorded in the share book.
Joint stock company shares in Türkiye can be sold optionally through a notary public.
Some tax rates in Türkiye:
-Corporate Tax rate is applied as 23% for 2022 and 2023.
Income, expense and profit/loss calculations are made quarterly and as follows.
Income-expense calculation and declaration periods;
1st Quarter: January-March period statement; Until May 17,
Quarter 2: April-June statement; Until August 17,
3rd Quarter: July-September period declaration until 17 November,
4th Quarter: October-December period declaration, until April 30 of the following year,
It is declared and if there is a profit, 23% Corporate Tax is paid. If the period resulted in a loss, no tax is payable.
– The profit distribution withholding rate is 10%.
If the profit remaining after the corporate tax is paid is desired to be distributed to the shareholders in whole or in part, 10% profit distribution withholding tax is paid over the dividend to be distributed.
-The general VAT rate is 18%.
VAT Declaration is submitted monthly.
– In case the joint stock company is to be closed, liquidation procedures must be carried out.
The liquidation entry process is approximately 1 month, the liquidation period is 3 months, and the final closing process takes 1 month. All liquidation procedures are completed within 5 months.
At least one liquidation manager must be appointed for liquidation.
If only one liquidation manager is appointed, he/she must be a Turkish citizen.
If more than one liquidation manager is appointed, it is sufficient for one of them to be a Turkish citizen.

ABOUT THE LIMITED LIABILITY COMPANY

It is established with at least one shareholder,

The maximum number of shareholders can be 50 people.

The shareholder or all of the owners can be foreign persons,

Minimum Capital must be 10 Thousand Turkish Lira,

There is no upper limit on capital.

Must have at least one manager

Company director or managers can be foreign persons,

A professional manager can be appointed also,

Stock can be printed,

All company establishment processes take approximately 7 business days to complete.

After the establishment of the company, the process of opening an account in the bank is started.

You can contact us for your other questions about the limited liability company to be established in Turkey.

Frequently Asked Questions About Limited Liability Company in Türkiye

One shareholder is sufficient for the establishment of a Limited Liability Company in Türkiye.
The upper limit for the number of shareholders of a limited liability company to be established in Türkiye is 50 shareholders.
If the number of shareholders of the Limited Liability Company is more than 50, the Joint Stock Company type must be selected.
No. The shareholder(s) does not have to be Turkish citizens. All shareholders can be foreign persons.
Yes. The shareholder(s) of the Limited Liability Company can be foreign persons. For example, a limited liability company or joint stock company abroad can be a legal person shareholder of a limited or joint stock company to be established in Türkiye.
There is no obligation to have a Turkish citizen shareholder in a company to be established in Türkiye.
Yes. The authorized signatory (director) of the Limited Liability Company can be a real or legal person established in Türkiye or a foreign person.
If the legal person is elected as the director of the company in Türkiye, he/she must choose a real person who will sign on behalf of the foreign legal person. This real person can also be a Turkish citizen or a foreign.
Yes, any title can be used. At least one industry name must be included in the title.
Before the establishment, it is inquired whether there is a similar title or not.
In the title, “Turkish, Türkiye, Republic, National” statements are not used in order that they depends on the approval of the Council of Ministers.
City names can be used if desired. For example, ABC Istanbul Makine Ltd.Şti.
Yes. Logo and trademark registration can be made after the establishment of the company.
Yes, it is possible. Provided that it is stated in the Articles of Association of the company, it is possible to operate in more than one sector.
The minimum capital required for a Limited Liability Company to be established in Türkiye is 10 thousand TL.
The capital commitment must be transferred by the shareholders to the bank account to be opened in the name of the company after the establishment.
In case the capital amount is high, 1/4 of the capital commitment remaining after the establishment is deposited to the bank account of the company by the shareholders within 2 years following the establishment and can be freely used for company activities.
The management of Limited Companies in Türkiye is carried out by the directors. More than one director can be selected, if desired.
The term of office of the director(s) can be determined indefinitely. Some directors can be authorized indefinitely, while others can have different terms.
Yes. The company must have a legal postal address. Addressing, answering coming calls and mail/cargo delivery and forwarding can be purchased as services from virtual office companies.
After obtaining the documents required for the establishment, the establishment of a Limited Liability Company with foreign capital is completed within approximately 5 to 7 working days.
In Türkiye, the registration of a limited liability company is made at the chamber of commerce, trade registry directorate, tax office and social security institution in the city where the company is located.
After the establishment of the company, the establishment documents are given to the bank and the bank starts the account opening procedures.
A bank account can be opened within 1 to 5 business days.
Banks can request additional information about foreign company shareholders during account opening.
Invoices are created electronically through the software of integrator software companies authorized by the Turkish Revenue Administration and sent to customers electronically.
The e-Invoices of customers located abroad are sent separately and manually by the issuing Limited Liability Company by e-mail.
-VAT declaration: Monthly
-Withholding declaration: Monthly
-Corporations Provisional Tax Return: 3 Months
-Corporate Tax Declaration: Annually
-Stamp Duty declaration: When there is a contract concluded
-Social Security Notice: Monthly
In limited liability companies in Türkiye, the responsibility for public debts is in the shareholders and directors of the company in proportion to their shares.
Liability for commercial debts is limited to the assets of the company.
As long as there is no misleading and fraudulent transaction, the persons and institutions with whom commercial relations are made can only go to the assets of the company for their receivables from the Limited Liability Company. They cannot go to company shareholders or the personal assets of its directors.
Limited Liability Companies in Türkiye do not have to issue share certificate. However, optionally, the share certificate can be printed. Share certificate can be printed by name or bearer.
In order for the share certificate to be issued, the subscribed capital must be fully paid.
The profit to be obtained from the sale of shares of limited companies is exempt from income tax for the shareholder selling the share.
The sale of shares must be made with a share transfer agreement to be drawn up at the notary public. The sales transaction made afterwards is recorded in the shareholders’ board resolution book of the Limited Liability Company and registered in the shareholders’ share book.
As a final transaction, registration is made from the trade registry office and a notification is made to the tax office and social security institution.
Some tax rates in Türkiye:
-Corporate Tax rate is applied as 23% for 2022 and 2023.
Income, expense and profit/loss calculations are made quarterly and as follows.
Income-expense calculation and declaration periods;
1st Quarter: January-March period statement; Until May 17,
Quarter 2: April-June statement; Until August 17,
3rd Quarter: July-September period declaration until 17 November,
4th Quarter: October-December period declaration, until April 30 of the following year,
It is declared and if there is a profit, 23% Corporate Tax is paid. If the period resulted in a loss, no tax is payable.
– The profit distribution withholding rate is 10%.
If the profit remaining after the corporate tax is paid is desired to be distributed to the shareholders in whole or in part, 10% profit distribution withholding tax is paid over the dividend to be distributed.
-The general VAT rate is 18%.
VAT Declaration is submitted monthly.
– If the limited liability company is to be closed, liquidation procedures must be carried out.
Liquidation entry procedures take approximately 1 month, liquidation period takes 3 months and finally liquidation closing processes take 1 month. All liquidation procedures are completed within 5 months.
At least one liquidation officer must be appointed for liquidation.
If only one liquidation manager is appointed, he/she must be a Turkish citizen.
If more than one liquidation manager is appointed, it is sufficient for one of them to be a Turkish citizen.

WHY STARTING A NEW BUSINESS IN TURKEY IS A SOUND DECISION

Starting your own business is an exciting project and if you are thinking of doing it abroad, the experience is even more intense. If you are thinking of starting a company in Turkey, then there has never been a better time. Recent legislation there promotes foreign investment, meaning it is much easier today to start a business in Turkey. The internal banking services and general infrastructure has been vastly improved, with trade links between Europe, Asia, and the Middle East maintaining a strong position. Turkey has historically attracted high levels of foreign investment due to this unique trading position and is recognised as offering some significant opportunities for company establishment. You may have to deal with bureaucratic procedures, but the scope will make it worth the effort. Read on to find out more about how to start business in Turkey.


    STARTING A COMPANY IN TURKEY

    It is easy to understand why Turkey appeals worldwide as a profitable business destination, especially for new businesses. It offers a young and highly educated population, where nearly half of its population are under 30. There is also a large amount of international companies that have launched new offices throughout the major cities, particularly around Ankara and Istanbul. Although most foreigner investors tend to focus on tourism, the Turkish Commercial Code contains several different business structures, all open to foreigners wanting to start a business in Turkey. Corporate law stipulates equal treatment, so international investors are entitled to exactly the same rights as Turkish ones. However, there are some regulated sectors like aviation and energy, where business in Turkey for foreigners gets a little more complex.

    COMPANY ESTABLISHMENT IN TURKEY

    It is always a good idea to start with research on how to start business in Turkey, check out the relevant authorities and seek legal advice before you get started with company establishment. The most popular option for foreigners is a private limited company, which can be easily set up by as little as two non Turkish nationals. If you are wondering about the price for starting a business in Turkey, then this requires a minimum of 10,000TL and you will need to have at least one shareholder. The process for company incorporation is fairly straightforward, and you should be able to then start trading within a week. This makes it perfect for choices of international business in Turkey like restaurants, letting companies, hotels, estate agents or shops.

     

    Newly industrialised countries like Turkey provide an extremely interesting opportunity and provide a fertile base for ideas. Businesses can be started with minimum investment and have low operating costs. Today, there are plenty of unpenetrated markets and plenty of scope for entrepreneurs to replicate successful business models. Turkey is an attractive proposition, so why not get started today?

    Get A Quote

    BUSINESS IN TURKEY FOR SALE

    Some investors find purchasing an existing business to be a safer option with greater benefits. It will have a stable trading history, existing customers, and staff who understand the business. Businesses for sale can easily be found on websites, or you can use a business broker to inform you about new businesses entering the market. It is likely to be a big investment, so be sure that you understand the legal aspects. As experienced local accountants we provide insight into business potential, competition levels and help you start your companies for reasonable cost of company formation in turkey.

    WHY US?

    • Over 20 Years of Experience
    • Proven Success Records
    • Deep Knowledge in Local Business Laws
    • Company Establishment in One Day